Mangrove Sonneratia caseolaris is a potential host for endhopytic fungi that commonly produce strong dan unique antibiotic. The objective of the research was to compare the antibacterial activity of Penicillium notatum ATCC 28089 and endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. R1M isolated from Mangrove Sonneratia caseolaris. First step of the research was observation the growth curve of each isolate. Second step was isolation of their metabolites to be used in the antibacterial activity assay against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739. The results showed that both isolates indicated different growth curves. Penicillium sp. R1M experienced shorter adaptation phase, than P. notatum ATCC 28089. The secondary metabolites of P. notatum ATCC 28089 was isolated on day 8, while those of Penicillium sp. R1M isolated on day 6. The result of antibacterial assay confirmed that the extracts of mycelia Penicillium sp. R1M show inhibition diameter in the growth of S. aureus and E. coli with ± mm and ± , mm, respectively, while the medium extracts of P. notatum ATCC 28089 were ± mm and ± mm, respectively. The inhibitory zone diameter of medium extracts. Penicillium sp. R1M against S. aureus and E. coli were correspondingly ± mm and ± mm, while the medium extracts of P. notatum ATCC 28089 were ± mm and ± mm, respectively. Mycelial extracts of Penicillium sp. R1M showed better antibacterial activity than those of P. notatum ATCC 28089. On the other hand the medium extracts showed the opposite results.
One of the plants that are used to regular treatment is behind the wind (Mallotus sp.). Traditionally this is used for the relief of pain and increase stamina by way of boiling the seven pieces of young leaves and drink once a day in the morning. This research aims to know the acute toxicity of ethanol extracts of leaves behind the wind (Mallotus sp) against larvae of Artemia salina Leach BSLT method. The research method used is qualitative analysis of chemical compound and Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) method with post-test-only control group design. The results of research on ethanol extracts of leaves behind the wind showed the value of LC 50 of ppm, so can be said of ethanol extracts of leaves behind the wind on this experiment of acute toxicity has on the larvae of Artemia salina Brine Shrimp method using Leach Lethality Test (BSLT).