The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous catheter, or a hypodermic needle to puncture the sacrococcygeal membrane . Injecting local anaesthetic at this level can result in analgesia and/or anaesthesia of the perineum and groin areas. The caudal epidural technique is often used in infants and children undergoing surgery involving the groin, pelvis or lower extremities. In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate surgery when regional anaesthesia is employed as the sole modality.
Patients who have been previously maintained on 20 mg or more of prednisone (or its equivalent) may be most susceptible, particularly when their systemic corticosteroids have been almost completely withdrawn. During this period of HPA suppression, patients may exhibit signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency when exposed to trauma , surgery, or infection (particularly gastroenteritis ) or other conditions associated with severe electrolyte loss. Although ARMONAIR RESPICLICK may improve control of asthma symptoms during these episodes, in recommended doses it supplies less than normal physiological amounts of corticosteroid systemically and does NOT provide the mineralocorticoid that is necessary for coping with these emergencies.
Each actuation of the Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg or 220 mcg inhaler provides a measured dose of approximately or mg mometasone furoate inhalation powder, containing 110 or 220 mcg of mometasone furoate, respectively. This results in delivery of 100 or 200 mcg mometasone furoate from the mouthpiece, respectively, based on in vitro testing at flow rates of 30 L/min and 60 L/min with constant volume of 2 L. The amount of mometasone furoate emitted from the inhaler in vitro does not differ significantly for flow rates ranging from L/min to 70 L/min at a constant volume of 2 L. However, the amount of drug delivered to the lung will depend on patient factors such as inspiratory flow and peak inspiratory flow through the device. In adult and adolescent patients (aged ≥12 years) with varied asthma severity, mean peak inspiratory flow rate through the device was 69 L/min (range: 54–77 L/min). In pediatric patients (aged 5-12 years) diagnosed with asthma, mean peak inspiratory flow rate in the 5- to 8-year-old subgroup was >50 L/min (minimum of 46 L/min) and for the 9- to 12-year-old subgroup was >60 L/min (minimum of 48 L/min).