However, the value of influence depends entirely on context, and AlphaGo relinquishes influence freely when it can be effectively mitigated. In the the game displayed in Dia. 2, one of the most surprising in its oeuvre, AlphaGo has just played an incredible six stones along the second line. Go players have a saying: on the fourth line there is influence, and on the third line there is territory, but on the second line there is only defeat. AlphaGo's play at first looks deserving of such censure, as these moves give White both strength and influence in exchange for Black's paltry 4 points of side territory. Most players, unwilling to bear the ignominy of playing the marked stones, would reject this line in an instant. Yet AlphaGo judges it worthwhile to keep White's stones separated, and in the following exchanges, slowly erodes White's influence from the top and bottom to secure a winning advantage.
Accountability policy has been controversial. Some assert that the new policy has distorted school decisions in undesirable ways, such as leading to higher drop-out rates, more cheating on tests, and undesirable narrowing of what is taught, although evidence on these effects is currently limited. Another charge is that it has prompted schools to weed out poor achievers by placing more students in special education classes - those for the educationally handicapped - and thereby improve the regular achievement score for the school and its classes, regardless of efforts to upgrade actual teaching. The Hanushek-Raymond study finds no such effects at the state level. Between 1980 and 2001 the proportion of students assigned to special education classes rose from 10 percent to over 13 percent. But this trend, one going on for two decades now, was not altered by the introduction of accountability across states in the 1995-2000 period.